The Atom

All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together.  We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind.  This mind is the matrix of all matter                                                                                                   

    -- Max Planck

Essentially, the atom is the building block of the universe[3]

   Atoms consist of 3 basic things[4]  :

      Protons 

      Neutrons

      Electrons

If an entire atom were the size of a baseball field, then the nucleus would be about the size of a grain of sand. 

An atom has two basic parts: The nucleus in the middle made up of protons and neutrons, and the electrons found in the orbital shells.[9]  These shells have fixed orbits[10]; they are always the exact same distance and diameter and there is only empty space between them. 

The electron is typically understood to whiz around in circles along the shell, but in fact it only pops up for a fraction of a second in a random spot, disappears, and then reappears in another random place on that shell.  It does this so fast and so often that it appears to be at all places at once and creates a sphere of negatively charged energy. 

What differentiates one atom from another is: the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons it has (although the number of protons is what determines its status on the periodic table).  

Hydrogen 1 Helium 2 Carbon 6 Oxygen 8 Gold 79 Uranium 92
         


Protons have a positive charge (+1), Yang

Neutrons are neutral (0), Wu

Electrons have a negative charge (-1).[5] , Yin

While protons and neutrons are relatively the same size, electrons[6] are approximately 1/2000th their size[7].  The number of protons an atom has determines its atomic number (on the periodic table).  Look at the periodic table and you will notice that the first element is the Hydrogen atom because it has 1 proton.  Number 2 is the Helium atom, Carbon - 6, Uranium - 92, and so on. 

     

(An animation of the same atom at different time intervals)

Also, it is important to be aware that all components of atoms are in actuality only energy and that the only ‘thing’ in the universe is; energy.

Atoms have never (nor will ever) actually been seen with the human eye.  In order to be ‘seen’ an object must be large enough to reflect light and the largest atom is 1000x smaller than a single wavelength of light.  We know they are there because of the trails they leave behind.  If all of this sounds odd, don’t worry:

Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum physics theory cannot possibly have understood it”

What is important to know (and most difficult to grasp) is that atoms are either:

there when a field of consciousness is upon them, or

not there and only exist in the field of possibilities when no field of consciousness is upon them. 

So with this in mind, to keep it simple… atoms are either waves of possibilities, or particles of existence.   (As evidence - The Double Slit experiment)

 

When you’re looking at them they are particles.

When you’re not looking at them they are waves.[11]

Waves + Consciousness = Particles

When there is no consciousness present they are waves and there is no ‘energy’ field that causes them to be, there is only the possibility of them be-ing (or the possibility of them being something else, since many different waves can exist in one place).

 

“Without consciousness there would, practically speaking, be no world, for the world exists as such only in so far as it is consciously reflected and consciously expressed by a psyche[12].”

When there is consciousness upon the field then the waves within that field become active.  This activity comes from the energy that pervades that field.  The waves are then locked into their places (superpositioning) and become particles. 

Quantum Entanglement

If 2 atoms from the same entity are separated, the experience of one will instantly create the same response in the other[1].  This phenomenon suggests that either the information is travelling faster than the speed of light, which means it is travelling back in time, or as is commonly accepted in the science community, they are still connected – entangled.  Since everything was ‘entangled’ at the moment of the big bang, then this theory suggests that everything in the universe is still entangled - connected.

E = mc²

According to the theory of relativity, mass and energy as commonly understood are two names for the same thing (one is not changed to the other).  If Energy & Mass are correlated then they are also co-dependant.  Whatever change happens to one also happens co-‘relative’ to the other. 

Summary of the Atom

"Only 100 years ago - the atom was just a theory" 

4.6% of the universe is atoms.  Atoms are the basic building block of the universe.  Their initial 'parts' are protons, neutrons, and electrons.  It can be said that atoms consist only of energy and information.  The more energy they have, the more mass they have (E=mc²).  And ‘technically speaking’ atoms are the only “things” there are in the universe.  Atoms are particles while in a field of consciousness, and are waves of possibility when not in a field of consciousness. 

The real mystery of the atom does not involve its power, but why does it not fly apart as science says it should.  The technical answer is called the strong effect, which is the opposite of the weak effect[4]. 

In Einstein's own words: 

"It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing -- a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind.  Furthermore, the equation E is equal to mc-squared, in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa.  The mass and energy were in fact equivalent, according to the formula mentioned above.  This was demonstrated by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932, experimentally."

Regarding velocity; if an object is pushed (added energy) in the direction of motion the object will increase its momentum up towards the speed of light, but when it reaches near the speed of light (nothing can travel faster than light) the energy no longer manifests as momentum, but relatively changes the mass of the object.  In the theory of relativity the momentum of an object cannot a constant times the velocity, nor can the kinetic energy be a constant times the square of the velocity.

·        (A human hair is about 300,000 atoms wide).

·        Uranium (92) is the heaviest natural known element on earth.  Plutonium (94) is the heaviest element known.

·        Inside the average human body there are 7-octillion (27-zeros) atoms

·        Oxygen & Hydrogen (both flammable) make water (H2O)

·        Sodium and Chlorine (both poisonous) make salt[8]

The word atom comes from Democritus of Greece (460-370BC), which translates as 'uncuttable'.

The Dirac Equation

The Dirac equation in the form originally proposed by Dirac is:

where:

m is the rest mass of the electron,

c is the speed of light,

p is the momentum, understood to be an operator in the sense of the Schrödinger theory,

x and t are the space and time coordinates,

ħ is the reduced Planck constant, h divided by 2π.

Dirac had worked out what electrons do.  This equation brings together the two great theories in Physics; Quantum Mechanics and the Special theory of Relativity.  The Dirac equation also predicted antimatter at a time when it could not be proved. 

 




[1] Even though QP has proven Newtonian Physics incorrect[1], we still must use Newtonian Physics to measure QP.  According to Ilya Prigogine, Physics has been ‘extended’ three times.  Firstly in Quantum Mechanics with the use of the wave function, then with Space-Time in Einstein’s theory of relativity, and finally with the recognition of Indeterminism in the study of ‘unstable systems’. 

[2] What the Bleep study guide page 22

[3] Although even it is made of smaller components - Subatomic particles, quarks, bosons, leptons, etc.

[4] In their electrically neutral state atoms have the same number of protons and electrons.If there is not equal amounts of each, they are called isotopes.

[5] Quarks make up protons and neutrons, which, in turn, make up an atom's nucleus. Each proton and each neutron contains three quarks. A quark is a fast-moving point of energy, and there are several varieties of quarks. Protons and neutrons are composed of two types: up quarks and down quarks.

Each up quark has a charge of +2/3.
Each down quark has a charge of -1/3.
The sum of the charges of quarks that make up a nuclear particle determines its electrical charge.

Protons contain two up quarks and one down quark.  +2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = +1

Neutrons contain one up quark and two down quarks. +2/3 -1/3 -1/3 = 0

[6] 9.1 kg × 10−31 or 9.1*10−31 kg. (0.0000000000000000000000000091 grams)

[7] 1/1836 of a proton, 1/1838 of a neutron.

[8] If you’re wondering why the hydrogen atom doesn’t have a neutron – good.  The explanation goes beyond the scope and purpose of this paper, but it is an interesting path to pursue for more knowledge of this subject.

There are no sources in the current document.

[9] Each succeeding shell can hold a number of electrons relative to the square of that shell’s number times two - (2xn²) (i.e. 2x1=2, 2x2²=8, 2x3²=18, 2x4²=32). 

[10] Unlike the moon around the earth’s and the earth’s around the sun’s.

[1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lDIqNTDi96I&feature=related

[12] The Undiscovered Self – page 49

[13] www.whatthebleep.com