The Universe   

4.6% of the universe is atoms, ~23% is dark matter, and 72% is dark energy.

Atoms make molecules, molecules make cells, cells make organisms, and when you break everything down to a beginning point - it all came from the Big Bang

Galaxies

There are approximately 100B galaxies in the universe.  

There is a Black hole at the centre of each Galaxy

Monster Galaxy Cluster 'El Gordo' Packs Mass of 2 Quadrillion Suns

Each Galaxy is relatively spaced apart from each other around the same distance that atoms are spaced apart from each other.

Our Galaxy - The Milky Way

Conjectural view of the spiral structure of the Milky Way Galaxy - Click to visit the Orion Arm

There are 200B stars in our galaxy - The Milky Way

It takes light approximately 100,000 years to cross our galaxy (13-16B years to cross the universe)

Our Black Hole is in the Constellation Sagitarrius

Our Solar System

  

The earth is made from the dust of our star (the sun), and the moon is made from the dust of the earth.

Our moon was formed from the dust of our Earth (collisions with asteroids, etc.).  The dust that went into space coalesced into rocks, the rocks became boulders, the boulders became bigger, etc. and this process (called Acretion) is how all solid planets have formed (i.e. Jupiter is a gas planet - no solid surface)

In 2003, an astronaut Don Pitt on the international space station, put salt and sugar inside a baggie of water, and noticed that they clumped together, as opposed to our atmophere - where particles fly away from each other (i.e. smoke). 

This is what is happening in Saturn - the rings.  Technically they are more than a billion moons. 

The Keiper belt

If the sun was the size of a basketball - the earth would be about 87 ft. away (93,000,000 miles), pluto would be about 8 blocks away, and the keipter belt will be from 8-12 blocks away (5-8B miles from the sun), virtually doubling what we thought was the area of our solar system.  (Pi)r2   

Outside of the Keiper belt is the Oort cloud.   Relatively - it would be 34 miles away from the basketball sun.  The edge of the oort system would be 1700 miles away.  We know it's there because comets from outside of the oort cloud come into our system, and the (Hale Bopp).  And these comets (made of rocks and ice) are the most likely explanation of where our oceans come from (like water ballons smashing into the earth).

     Stars

Stars start out as big gas clouds.  Gravity pulls those clouds together and they get so concentrated that fusion starts in the core of what has now become a star.  Stars are then basically giant balls of energy that are powered by gravity. 

The bulk of the gas in a star is hydrogen (1), and in the 'melting pot' (furnace) the hydrogen atoms fuse (fusion) into helium (2) atoms (both are gases).

Fusion is how stars support themselves against gravity.  Gravity tries to crush the star towards the centre while heat pushes the star back out.

Those elements fuse into heavier and heavier elements - until iron (26) is produced.  Once iron is produced; the star's death is immanent (iron won't burn, so then there is no more heat (energy) being generated at the core).  Since there is nothing producing pressure (outwardly) at the core, but gravity keeps pulling in, a collapse ensues and there will be a shockwave (supernova if it is 8x more massive than our sun (if there's no bang - it's an unnova)) that blows up the entire star. 

If a neutron star is left remaining - it will be very small (~ 15km wide) and so dense that a teaspoon of neutron star matter could weigh a billion tons.  (Magnetar)

Eventually the gravitational pressure will be so intense that the neutrons themselves will be crushed and the eventual collapse will be the birth of a black hole.  It is compressed so tightly it literally 'exits' the known universe.   

  Our Star - The Sun

If you let every person on earth set off a nuclear weapon once a second you still wouldn't have as much power as in the sun. 

(our suns core is around 10M-degrees) ??????

The internal temperature of the sun is over 1,000,000 degrees.

All Stars start out burning Hydrogen and then fuses them into Helium.

Gravity is pulling it towards the core - heat is pushing it back out.

The largest star in the universe is VY Canis Majoris (The Big Dog - 4900 LY from earth, it`s circumference matches the orbit of Saturn around the sun.

 

Constellations

Constellations are simply names we give to groups of stars for reference, but they are not in themselves - grouped in any particular fashion. 

 

All currently popular scientific theories suggest (unprovingly), that there must be more than 1 universe - a multiverse.