The Big Bang 


Just before "the beginning", there was no matter, no energy, no space, and no time.  Then came The Big Bang (which was actually silent - sound does not propagate in space.)

'It' was a fireball the size of an atom that contained all of the elements of the universe and was 10 trillion trillion times hotter than the core of the sun.

In 1929, Edwin Hubble observed that the farther away the galaxy was, the longer the wavelength of light it emits.  Lightwaves stretch the more they travel and stretching changes there wavelength.  The same principle applies to soundwaves.  As a train approaches, the whistle's pitch rises, when it passes the pitch lowers.  As the train recedes, each soundwave has to travel farther than the last to reach your ear.  The soundwaves stretch - lowering the pitch. 

If a galaxy is moving away from us - its lightwaves stretch - becoming longer - and redder.  It's called red-shifting.  Red is the long wavelength (of visible light).  And blue is the short wavelength.  


 Nearly all galaxies are receding at 1,000,000 miles an hour.

The four fundamental forces of nature form __________.  Those forces underpin everything around us.   (Gravity, Electromagnetism, The Strong nuclear force, The weak nuclear force.)

In a nuclear explosion, particles of matter are ripped apart releasing energy.   During the big bang - the exact opposite happened.  An enormous amount of energy turned to matter. 


At 1 second of time - the universe is about 1000x the size of our solar system and has cooled down enough for quarks to bunch in 3s to form protons and neutrons. 

At 3 mins. the universe cools enough for protons and neutrons to form the first atomic nucleus.

At 300,000 years - the first atom appears

200M Years, matter clumps to form the first stars.

1B years - galaxies appear

9B years - earth is formed

The current thought of what was the scintillae of the Big Bang, is that 2 branes met - from a multi-dimensional universe.