***  http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/stephen-hawking-there-are-no-black-holes-9085016.html

Black Holes

Once upon a time people thought that black hole physics was too fantastic to be true.  And now they are centre stage.  We now know they dominate the evolution of the universe itself. 

It is currently thought that black holes are the result of what happens when stars run out of fuel and collapse under their own weight.  But nobody is really sure because black holes are where the accepted laws of physics break down. 

The effect of the mass is still in our universe, causing a fold in space, that goes 'all the way down'. 

Our black hole is in the constellation Sagitarrius in the centre of the milky way and has an estimated mass of approximately 4 million stars.  It must have swallowed millions of stars since it's beginning as a cosmic sinkhole. 

A black hole is a 'deep well' in space time

When two black holes meet  - the smaller one circles the big one - like a spirograph in a very defined pattern, which looks like the same rotation of the protons and electrons.  

It is a point of infinite density.  A region where time and space have closed in on itself.  Where the pull of gravity is so immense that neither light nor matter can come out once it has entered. 

We know of them now, proven in 197X, but back when it was just a theory - Einstein rejected the idea.

Right now, our nearest galaxy (Andromeda) is charging towards us (billions of years away).

Heliosphere (reference)

Sometimes when a star goes supernova it is so massive that it doesn`t even create a neutron star.  Nothing keeps it from collapsing right down into a black hole. 

Some bigger than others. 

Micro Black Holes are about the size of a Proton and disappear billionths of a second after they ``become``. 

The most massive eruption we know of happens at a black hole. 

Biggest known has lasted 100M years and still going. 

The biggest Black Holes we know of are known as NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in the Leo cluster of galaxies nearly 320 million light years distant, has a central black hole 9.7 billion solar masses large. The other, named NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster more than 335 million light years away, has a black hole of comparable or larger mass. Both encompass regions or "event horizons" about five times the distance from the sun to Pluto.

"For comparison, these black holes are 2,500 times as massive as the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy, whose event horizon is one-fifth the orbit of Mercury," said study lead author Nicholas McConnell at the University of California, Berkeley.

See black hole shred star


Quasars blast away huge quantities of gas from the surrounding galaxy.  The equivalent of 10 earths every minute.

Black holes suck gas in, Quasars blow it out. 

Probably every big galaxy was a quasar when it was young. 

This picture shows a quasar that has been gravitationally lensed by a galaxy in the foreground, which can be seen as a faint shape around the two bright images of the quasar. (Credit: NASA, ESA, J.A. Muñoz (University of Valencia))

Quasars -- short for quasi-stellar objects -- are glowing discs of matter that orbit supermassive black holes, heating up and emitting extremely bright radiation as they do so. 

"A quasar accretion disc has a typical size of a few light-days, or around 100 billion kilometres across, but they lie billions of light-years away. This means their apparent size when viewed from Earth is so small that we will probably never have a telescope powerful enough to see their structure directly," explains Jose Muñoz, the lead scientist in this study.

Until now, the minute apparent size of quasars has meant that most of our knowledge of their inner structure has been based on theoretical extrapolations, rather than direct observations.

Birth of Famous Black Hole: Longstanding Mysteries About Object Called Cygnus X-1 Unraveled

ScienceDaily (Nov. 17, 2011) — For the first time, astronomers have produced a complete description of a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape its powerful gravitational pull. Their precise measurements have allowed them to reconstruct the history of the object from its birth some six million years ago.


Bonanza of Black Holes, Hot DOGs: NASA's WISE Survey Uncovers Millions of Black Holes

ScienceDaily (Aug. 29, 2012) — NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission has led to a bonanza of newfound supermassive black holes and extreme galaxies called hot DOGs, or dust-obscured galaxies.

Black Holes Spin Faster and Faster

ScienceDaily (May 23, 2011) — Two UK astronomers have found that the giant black holes in the centre of galaxies are on average spinning faster than at any time in the history of the Universe. Dr Alejo Martinez-Sansigre of the University of Portsmouth and Prof. Steve Rawlings of the University of Oxford made the new discovery by using radio, optical and X-ray data. They publish their findings in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Amazing flare from a black hole in a distant galaxy