soul-image is always contrasexual, and as we
experience our Shadow through someone else,
we also experience our basic
contrasexual components through another.
We choose or
attached to someone who represents the qualities of
our own psyche.
such as the anima or
animus will never coincide with the concrete reality of an
Individual man; and the more individual a man is, the less he will correspond to
projected on him (because the Individual is
the exact opposite of the archetypal).
'The Individual is precisely not what is any way typical; he is a unique
mixture of particular traits which themselves be typical.
This disparity which is at first obscured by the
more evident as time goes on; as the carrier of the
projection reveals his true
nature, conflicts and disappointments are inevitable'.
Every man carries within him the eternal image of woman, not the image of
this or that particular woman, but a definite feminine image.
This image is fundamentally unconscious, an hereditary factor of
primordial origin engraved in the living organic system of the man, an
imprint or “archetype”
of all the ancestral experiences of the female, a deposit, as it were, of
all the impression ever made by woman – in short, an inherited system of
psychic adaptation. Even if no women existed, it
would still be possible, at any given time, to deduce from this unconscious
image exactly how a woman would have to be constituted psychically.
The same is true of the woman: she too has her inborn image of man.
Actually, we know from experience that it would be more accurate to
describe it as an image of men, whereas in the case of the man it is
rather the image of woman. Since this image is
unconscious, it is
always unconsciously projected upon the person of the beloved, and is one of
the chief reasons for passionate attraction or aversion.
I have called this image the “anima,”
and I find the scholastic question Habet mulier animam? especially
interesting, since in my view it is an intelligent one inasmuch as the doubt
seems justified. Woman has no anima, no soul, but she has
The anima has an erotic, emotional character, the animus a
rationalizing one. Hence most of what men say about
feminine eroticism, and particularly about the emotional life of women, is
derived from their own anima projections and distorted accordingly.
On the other hand, the astonishing assumptions and fantasies that
women make about men come from the activity of the animus, who produces an
inexhaustible supply of illogical arguments and false explanations.
Anima and animus are both characterized by an extraordinary
many-sidedness. In a marriage it is always the contained
who projects this image upon the container, while the latter is only
partially able to project his unconscious image upon his partner.
The more unified and simple this partner is, the less complete the
projection. In which case, this highly fascinating image
hangs as it were in mid air, as though waiting to be filled out by a living
person. There are certain types of women who seem to be
made by nature to attract anima projections; indeed one could almost speak
of a definite “anima type.” The so-called “sphinx-like”
character is an indispensable part of their equipment, also an
equivocalness, an intriguing elusiveness – not an indefinite blur that
offers nothing, but an indefiniteness that seems full of promises, like the
speaking silence of a Mona Lisa. A woman of this kind is
both old and young, mother and daughter, of more than doubtful chastity,
childlike, and yet endowed with a naïve cunning that is extremely disarming
to men. Not every man of real intellectual power can be
an animus, for the animus must be a master not so much of fine ideas as of
fine words – words seemingly full of meaning which purport to leave a great
deal unsaid. He must also belong to the “misunderstood”
class, or be in some way at odds with his environment, so that the idea of
self-sacrifice can insinuate itself. He must be a rather
questionable hero, a man with possibilities, which is not to say that an
animus projection may not discover a real hero long before he has become
perceptible to the sluggish wits of the man of “average intelligence.”
soul-image stands in a direct relationship to the
‘If the persona is intellectual, the soul-image is quite certainly
We may term
the persona the mediating function between the
ego and the outside world and the
soul-image the corresponding mediating function between the
ego and the inner
is also still undifferentiated, i.e., if it remains in the
it is often contaminated by the features of the anima.
absence of resistance outwardly against the lure of the
persona means a similar
weakness inwardly against the influence of the
unconscious’ (Relations’, par
308,309). A man obsessed by the
anima is in danger of losing his ‘well-fitting’
persona and succumbing to
effeminacy, just as the usual feminine persona of the
animus-possessed woman may
be unable to withstand the ‘arguments’ of her
One of the
most typical manifestations of both figures is what has long been called
Thus the insinuations
of the anima, the mouthpiece of the
unconscious, can utterly destroy a man. …
Today I no longer need these
conversations with the anima, for I no longer have such emotions. But if I did
have them, I would deal with them in the same way. Today I am directly
conscious of the anima’s ideas because I have learned to accept the contents of
the unconscious and to understand them. I know how I must behave toward the
inner images. I can read their meaning directly from my
dreams, and therefore
no longer need a mediator to communicate them. MDR 188
The soul, the anima,
establishes the relationship to the
unconscious. In a certain sense this is
also a relationship to the collectivity of the dead; for the
corresponds to the mythic land of the dead, the land of the ancestors. If,
therefore, one has a fantasy of the soul vanishing, this means that it has
withdrawn into the unconscious or into the land of the dead. MDR 191
‘As we know,
the contents of the unconscious compensate our
conscious attitude; since the
male tends to be rather polygamous in his outward life, his anima usually
appears singly. The woman on the
other hand tends toward monogamy in her real life and thus reveals a polygamous
trait in her soul image; which for the woman will be personified in many figures
- like an assembly of fathers.
Jacobi pg 121
the soul-image coincides with
the function that has been least elucidated
and still rests in the unconscious, it is antithetical to
the main function, and
this contrast will be manifested in the figure symbolizing it.
Therefore, in principle, an abstract scientist’s anima will be primitive,
emotional, and romantic, while that of the intuitive, sensitive artist will be a
down-to-earth, sensual type. And it
is no accident that effeminate emotional men usually bear in their hearts the
image of an Amazon, disguised in our time as a feminist.
“When in their
ripe years men become effeminate and women belligerent, this is always an
indication that a part of the
psyche which should be turned inward is directed
toward the outside world, that these persons have failed to accord their inner
life its due recognition. For we
are at the mercy of a contrasexual partner, unprepared for the surprises he has
in store, only so long as we have not recognized his true nature.
But we can only perceive this true nature in ourselves, for as a rule we
choose a partner who stands for the
unconscious part of our
If this part of our
personality is made
conscious, we cease to impute our
own faults to our partner; in other words, the
projection is withdrawn.
We recover the
psychic energy that was bound up in the projection and are
able to put it to work for the benefit of our own
“Once we have
perceived the contrasexual element in ourselves and raised it to
we have ourselves, our emotions, and affects reasonably well in hand.
Above all we have achieved a real independence and with it, to be sure, a
certain isolation. In a sense we
are alone, for our ‘inward freedom’ means that a love relations can no longer
fetter us; the other sex has lost its magic power over us, for we have come to
know its essential traits in the depths of our own
We shall not easily ‘fall in love’, for we can no longer lose ourselves
in someone else, but we shall be capable of a deeper love, a
to the other. For our aloneness
does not alientate us from the world, but only places us at a proper distance
from it. By anchoring us more
firmly in our own nature it even enables us to give ourselves more unreservedly
to another human being, because our individuality is no longer endangered.
To be sure, it usually takes half a lifetime to arrive at this stage.
Probably no one can do so without a struggle.
It also takes a full measure of experience, not to mention
confrontation with the soul-image is not a task of youth, but of mature years.
In the first
half of life contact with the opposite sex aims above all at physical union
(babies etc.) … in the 2nd half the essential becomes the psychic
a union with the
contrasexual both in the area of one’s own inner world and through the carrier
of its image in the outer worlds.
encounter with the soul-image always means that the first half of life with its
necessary adaptation to the outside world and the resulting
orientation of consciousness is ended, and that we must begin to take the most
important step of our adaptation to the inner world, namely to confront our own
contrasexual aspect. ‘The
activation of the archetype of the soul-image is therefore an event of fateful
importance, for it is
the most unmistakable sign that the second half of life has begun.
conscious realization of the shadow makes possible the knowledge of our other,
dark side in so far as it pertains to our own sex, so realization of the
soul-image enables us to know the contrasexual aspect of our own
The result is an extraordinary enrichment of the contents of
consciousness and a great broadening of our
(When all the
perils of confrontation with the soul-image have been overcome, new
figures arise. We shall have to
come to terms with them and once more take our bearings.
As far as one can see, the whole process is implicitly purposive.
Although the unconscious is
pure nature without particular or explicit
aim we may say that it has a kind of ‘potential directedness’.
It has an invisible inner order of its own, an inherent striving toward a
goal.) Thus ‘when the
mind participates actively and experiences each stage of the process, or at
least understands it
intuitively, then the next image always starts off on the
higher level that has been won, and purposiveness develops (Relations’, par 386).
Thus it is no accident that the next
step after the confrontation with the soul-image should be characterized by
the appearance of the archetype of the
Wise Old Man - the personification of the → spiritual principle -
when animus and anima
meet, the animus draws his sword of power and the anima ejects her poison of illusion and seduction. The
outcome need not always be negative, since the two are equally likely to fall in
love (a special instance of love at first sight).
Adam, the first individual created by God, is described as initially being both
male and female (Genesis 1:27). This Adam represents the
archetype of all
future men and women. Each man and each woman contains both the archetype
male and the archetype female, despite being biologically only of a single sex.
Ultimately, however, one strives for an anima-animus marraige within
... we are not concerned here with a philosophical, much less a religious,
concept of the soul, but with the psychological recognition of the existence of
a semiconscious psychic
complex, having partial autonomy of function.
If the encounter with the
in the individual’s development, then that with
the Anima is the
Now, everything that is true of the
persona and of all autonomous complexes in
general also holds true of the anima. She likewise is a
this is why she is so easily
projected upon a woman. So long as the anima
is unconscious she is always projected, for everything unconscious is projected.
The first bearer of the soul-image is always the mother; later it is borne by
those women who arouse the man's feelings, whether in a positive or a negative
sense. Because the mother is the first bearer of the soul-image,
separation from her is a delicate and important matter of the greatest
educational significance. A&A BW 171
When the anima continually thwarts the good intentions of the conscious mind,
by contriving a private life that stands in sorry contrast to the dazzling
persona, it is exactly the same as when a naive individual, who has not the
ghost of a persona, encounters the most painful difficulties in his passage
through the world. A&A BW 172
Outwardly an effective and powerful role is played, while inwardly an
effeminate weakness develops in face of every influence coming from the
unconscious. Moods, vagaries,
timidity, even a limp sexuality (culminating in impotence) gradually gain the
upper hand.” BW A&A – page 168 par
"For, a man
counts it a virtue to repress his
feminine traits as much as possible"
In Eastern symbolism the
square - signifying the earth in China, the padma or
lotus in India - has the character of the yoni:
femininity. A man's
unconscious is likewise feminine and is personified by the anima. The
anima also stands for the
"inferior" function and for that reason frequently has
a shady character; in fact she sometimes stands for evil itself. MC 151
“anima” Jung understands a personification of the
unconscious in the man,
which appears as a woman or a goddess in
dreams, visions and creative
fantasies. She portrays his “Lady Soul,” as Carl
Spitteler has called her. This figure would seem to be a
derivative of the mother-imago, and it is as if it encompassed within itself
both the man’s own inherent femininity and his actual experience with the
real woman. At the same time, this image is prior to all
his experiences with woman, since in so far as the anima manifests herself
as a goddess, she is an archetype and consequently has a real, though
invisible, existence transcending all actual experiences.
... the (soul-image) of woman becomes a receptacle for these
demands, which is why a man, in his love-choice, is strongly tempted to win the
woman who best corresponds to his own
femininity - a woman, in
short, who can unhesitatingly receive the
projection of his soul. Although
such a choice is often regarded and felt as altogether ideal, it may turn out
that the man has manifestly married his own worst weakness.
When the anima is not projected on to a woman but remains in her own
place in the soul, she is for the man a mediatrix of the contents of the
unconscious. TGL 65
“The relation with the anima is
again a test of courage, an ordeal by fire for the spiritual and
moral forces of
in the development of the anima, youths, perhaps when at school, have a
girlfriend they admire but can’t marry because they are not yet of an ago to
do so. Subsequently they marry another type.
Then later in life – say between forty and fifty – this admired
anima-imago frequently turns up again and generally plays the symbolic inner
role of being the one who leads to
This aspect of the anima takes on the role of Dante’s Beatrice,
namely, that of the leader into the inner secret. The
other part of the anima which gets
projected onto a real woman is what seduces the man into marriage and
into life. So you can say that there is an aspect of the
mother-imago of the anima which leads into exogamous marriage and with that,
generally, into involvement with outer life, and there is an endogamous
aspect of the same image which remains within and later becomes the guide
toward the realization of the inner life. TAoPA 138
a man, for instance, has an obligation to his anima, and to the woman with
whom he made friends, or married, then he gets into a double obligation, and
where one is always torn between obligations to the outer and to the inner
side of life. That would be the realization of the
crucifixion, or of the basic truth of life! Life is
double – it is a double obligation, it is a conflict in itself – because it
always means the collision, or conflict, of two tendencies.
But that is what makes life!
the ideal picture of a man as he should be, is inwardly compensated by feminine
weakness, and as the individual outwardly plays the strong man, so he becomes
inwardly a woman (anima), for it is the anima
that reacts to the
As long as an
Individual does not know his Shadow, the
Unconscious will be predominately
feminine, and vice-versa.
Persona is too
rigid and solely differentiated, the
represent a mixture of the
Auxiliary, Tertiery, and Inferior functions.
accessory functions are developed, the anima stands out.
The more one is dominated by
the Persona, the more the anima remains in the darkness.
... for when a man
recognizes that his ideal
persona is responsible for his anything but ideal
anima, his ideals are shattered, the world becomes ambiguous, he becomes
ambiguous even to himself. He is seized by doubts about goodness, and what
is worse, he doubts his own good intentions. A&A BW 169
But the anima has a positive
aspect as well. It is she who communicates the images of the
unconscious to the
conscious mind, and that is what I chiefly valued her for.
The anima is
both the instinctual temptations lurking in the darkness of the
also is the man’s wise and
luminous guide - this is, of the other aspect of the
unconscious - which leads him not down, but onward.
if I advise a woman patient to associate her
unconscious contents, she will
always produce the same kind of fantasy. The masculine
figure who almost unfailingly appears is the animus, and the succession of
fantasy-experiences demonstrates the gradual transformation and dissolution of
the autonomous complex.
I were to attempt to put in a nutshell the difference between man and woman in
this respect, i.e., what it is that characterizes the animus as opposed to the
anima, I could only say this: as the anima produces moods, so the animus
produces opinions; and as the moods of a man issue from a shadowy background, so
the opinions of a woman rest on equally
unconscious prior assumptions.
fact that a man naively ascribes his anima reactions to himself, without seeing
that he really cannot identify himself with an autonomous
complex, is repeated
in feminine psychology, though if possible in even more marked form.
One would be inclined to suppose that the animus, like the anima, personifies
itself in a single figure. ... The animus does not appear as one person, but as
a plurality of persons.
the anima, the animus is a jealous lover. He is an adept at putting, in
place of the real man, an opinion about him, the exceedingly disputable grounds
for which are never submitted to criticism. Animus opinions are invariably
collective, and they override individuals and individual judgments in exactly
the same way as the anima thrusts her emotional anticipations and
between man and wife.
intellectual women the animus encourages a critical disputatiousness and
would-be highbrowism, which, however, consists essentially in harping on some
irrelevant weak point and nonsensically making it the main one. Or a
perfectly lucid discussion gets tangled up in the most maddening way
through the introduction of a quite different and if possible perverse point of
view. Without knowing it, such women are solely intent upon exasperating
the man and are, in consequence, the more completely at the mercy of the animus.
"Unfortunately I am always right," one of these creatures once confessed to me.
woman possessed by the animus is always in danger of losing her femininity, her
adapted feminine persona, just as a man in like circumstances runs the risk of
effeminacy. These psychic changes of sex are due entirely to the fact that
a function which belongs inside has been turned outside. The reasons for
this perversion is clearly the failure to give adequate recognition to an inner
world which stands autonomously opposed to the outer world, and makes just as
serious demands on our capacity for adaptation.
Just as the anima becomes, through integration, the
consciousness, so the animus becomes a Logos; and in the same way that the anima
gives relationship and relatedness to a man’s consciousness, so the animus
becomes a Logos; and in the same way that the anima gives relationship and
relatedness to a man’s consciousness,
… the animus gives to woman’s
consciousness a capacity for
reflection, deliberation, and
Just as the
male is uncertain in the realm of
Eros, a woman is insecure in
‘What woman has to overcome in respect to the
animus is not pride but
inertia and lack of self-confidence.
The animus accent
is on knowledge - particularly understanding.
Anima / Animus:
Anima / Animus:
Secret of the Golden Flower