Freud

(Jung on) Adler

Freud represents the scientific rationalism of the nineteenth century, Adler the socio-political trends of the twentieth.  TPOP 26

It would certainly never have occurred to me to depart from Freud’s path had I not stumbled upon facts which forced me into modifications.  And the same is true of my relation to the Adlerian viewpoint.  TPoP 57

   I certainly recognize how much my work has been furthered first by Freud and then by Adler, and in practice I try to acknowledge this debt by making use of their views, whenever possible, in the treatment of my patients.  Nevertheless I must insist that I have experienced failures which, I felt, might have been avoided had I considered the facts that subsequently forced me to modify their views.  TPoP 38

To describe all the situations I came up against is almost impossible, so I must content myself with singling out a few typical cases.  It was with older patients that I had the greatest difficulties, that is, with persons over forty.  In handling younger people I generally get along with the familiar viewpoints of Freud and Adler, for these tend to bring the patient to a certain level of adaptation and normality.  Both views are eminently applicable to the young, apparently without leaving any disturbing after-effects.  In my experience this is not so often the case with older people.  It seems to me that the basic facts of the psyche undergo a very marked alteration in the course of life, so much so that we could almost speak of a psychology of life’s morning and a psychology of its afternoon.  As a rule, the life of a young person is characterized by a general expansion and a striving towards concrete ends; and his neurosis seems mainly to rest on his hesitation or shrinking back from this necessity.  But the life of an older person is characterized by a contraction of forces, by the affirmation of what has been achieved, and by the curtailment of further growth.  His neurosis comes mainly from his clinging to a youthful attitude which is now out of season.  Just as the young neurotic is afraid of life, so the older one shrinks back from death.  What was a normal goal for the young man becomes a neurotic hindrance for the old – just as, through his hesitation to face the world, the young neurotic’s originally normal dependence on his parents grows into an incest-relationship that is inimical to life.  It is natural that neurosis, resistance, repression, transference, “guiding fictions.” And so forth should have one meaning in the young person and quite another in the old, despite apparent similarities.  The aims of therapy should undoubtedly be modified to meet this fact.  Hence the age of the patient seems to me a most important indicium.